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The elaborate drainage system is a unique feature of the Indus Valley civilization, the like of which has not yet been found in any other city of the same antiquity. At Surkotada, the settlement pattern of Harappa, Mohenjodaro, and Kalibangan is repeated, but with a difference. [16] Another standout achievement of the Indus Valley people was their own meticulously planned drainage systems as well as an efficient water supply. Individual house drains, each one with its own sump pit, opened into the street drains, which in their turn opened into the great culverts emptying into the river. Below principal streets and many lanes ran a main drain, 1 to 2 ft deep, covered with bricks or stones, and provided with sumps and inspection traps at regular intervals. The great hall or great bath structures are also a part of this serving possibly a religious as well as social function. There is the ruin of a great granary at Harappa measuring 169 fit x 135 fit. Most of the houses were built of burnt bricks. Urban Cities: The Indus civilization flourished around cities. The cities in the Indus Valley civilisation are well-known for their water supply systems, baked brick houses, clusters of large non-residential buildings, urban planning and elaborate drainage system. These prove the presence of good municipal administration. In Dholavira the town is divided into three parts, one is Citadel and the other two are lower cities.. The buildings so far unearthed in the Harappan cities fall into three main classes: (i) dwelling houses, (ii) larger buildings, (iii) public baths, granaries, etc. One could enter a house by the door facing the side lanes of the house. Though it is not evident that there was a Monarchy system in the Indus-Valley Civilization but it seems that there was certainly a ruling clan. Rainwater also may have been collected for this purposes, but no inlet drains are seen. Most of the bricks were of equal size. Town Planning was done for the benefit of the people by providing basic amenities and standardized living. As at Kalibangan, both the citadel and the lower town were fortified. Also read: Drainage System of Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley), Great Public Bath and Granary of Indus Valley Civilization. institutions of civic and religious life were located and the residential area The first two divisions-the ‘citadel’ and the ‘middle town’- were fortified with stone masonry. copper, bronze, lead and tin. angles to each other following the grid system. Street lamps were provided for welfare of public. Systematically built Buildings and Houses. The drainage system of Mohen-jo-daro is so elaborate that “the like of which has not yet been … They were plain, utilitarian and comfortable to live. The ruins of the cities, so far unearthed, show remarkable town planning, and excellent system of drainage and sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilization. There was little artistic touch in the architectural design of the buildings belonging either to the rich or the poor. Granaries: Large granaries were located near each of the citadels, which suggest that the state stored grain for ceremonial purposes, times of shortage, and possibly the regulation of grain production and sale. The citadel at Mohenjodaro contained many imposing buildings; all made of kiln-burnt-bricks, for example, the great bath, the college, the granary and the assembly hall. There was no stone built house in the Indus cities. The town lacked the general conception of a chess-board or gridiron pattern of planning. Town Planning In Indus Valley Civilization. The fortifications were provided with bastions at frequent intervals as well as gates, narrow or wide. Doors of entrance were fixed not on the front wall but on the side walls. Each city was divided into the citadel area where the essential

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