pros and cons of genetic engineering in agriculture

GM crops have also been criticized for promoting the development of pesticide resistant pests (Dale, Clarke, & Fontes, 2002). 5. The risk of GM crops to the world economy can be significant. This will allow us to move onto the questions of:  What outcomes do we want to see in developing our food supply and what role does genetic engineering play? Oil And Gas Association, While untilled forest soils and savannas, for example, act as carbon stores, farmed land is often a carbon source (Burney, Davis, & Lobell, 2010). There are many pros of genetic engineering one is benefitting human health. Through genetic engineering, they can identify and treat the disease or strengthen the immune system to fight against it. We accept all the changes while eliminating the risk that may appear in the future. While the GMOs themselves are protected, these chemicals need to be used to combat diseases and pests which could attack the crops. Through modifying crops, their flavors can be enhanced. However, others are looking at this technology as a dangerous proposition. Brookes and Barfoot (2008) suggested that the fuel reduction because of GM crop cultivation resulted in a carbon dioxide emissions savings of 1215 × 106 Kg. When organisms’ genes are tampered with the whole web of life is affected. This advantage of genetic engineering helps the agricultural sector for profitability, additional resources, and fast supply in the marketplace. The 4 Pros of Genetic Engineering. With the latest technology, you can easily change, delete or insert specific genes to an organism’s DNA. A crop like Golden rice could help to overcome the problem of vitamin A deficiency by at least 50% at moderate expense (Stein, Sachdev, & Qaim, 2008), yet its adoption has been hampered by activist campaigns (Potrykus, 2012). On your end, what do you think? The novelty of the technology and its potential to bring almost any trait into crops mean that there needs to remain dedicated diligence on the part of regulators to ensure that no GM crops are deregulated that may in fact pose risks to human health or the environment. Gobs of it. The control of weeds by physical means or by using selective herbicides is time-consuming and expensive (Roller & Harlander, 1998). Only a very limited number of traits have been incorporated to date into GM crops, the two primary traits being herbicide tolerance (HT) and insect resistance. Gene transfer from GM foods to cells of the body or to bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract would cause concern if the transferred genetic material unfavorably influences human health, but the probability of this occurring is remote. For corn and cotton the global proportion of GM is 30% and 14%, respectively (James, 2015b). Concerns over the safety of GM food have played a role in decisions by Chinese officials to move away from GM production. Who Is Doing Genetic Engineering? Several authors have reported a positive correlation between the adoption of GM HT canola and the adoption of zero-tillage systems in western Canada (Phillips, 2003; Beckie et al., 2006; Kleter et al., 2007). How Many Cigarettes A Day Is Heavy Smoking, The greatest gains in yield attributed to the adoption of GM HT crops has been for soybean in the United States and Argentina and for GM HT canola in Canada (Brookes & Barfoot, 2008). The Cornish Mystery, This may help reduce hunger around the world. What benefits one plant may harm another. It has bought new dawn in the health and medicinal field. Accountants And Auditors Salary, Pink bollworm has become resistant to the first generation GM Bt cotton in India (Bagla, 2010). This area covers about half the total canola area in Canada (Qaim & Traxler, 2005). Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). 1. It is also used in the medical field to create insulin, which can be used for treating diabetes. Again, many of these concerns may be more a function of the impacts of simple and broad-scale farming practices facilitated by GM crops rather than GM crops per se. These impacts included polluted land, water, and air, and the development of resistant strains of pests. In fact, survey shows that food allergies in children under 18 have increased from 1997 to 1999, though there was no conclusive scientific link to GMO crops directly involved in the experiments. This technology can be considered as plant vaccine, but the difference is only that we encode the vaccine into the genetics, instead of a shot given as to it is done in animals. Examples of these include feeding the world, consumer choice, and seed ownership (Van Acker & Cici, 2014). Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Environmental Science. Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering ‘Genetic engineering’ is the process to alter the structure and nature of genes in human beings, animals or foods using techniques like molecular cloning and transformation. Sometimes, this can cause side effects. How To Watch Usmnt, At one point the species will be resilient and the future generations have to deal with the consequences. Genetic engineering allows the crossing of modified and non-modified species which might have an effective solution. In the same way, dairy cows can produce more milk and sheep can grow wool faster. The proponents of GM crops have argued that the application of GM technology would fundamentally improve the efficiency, resiliency, and profitability of farming (Apel, 2010). Cons of genetic engineering. Mixtures of herbicides can control many of the common annual and perennial weeds in western Canada but they are expensive and not necessarily reliable (Blackshaw & Harker, 1992). Four crops, maize, canola, soybean, and cotton, constitute the vast majority of GM crop production (James, 2015a), and GM crops have been grown commercially since 1995 (Bagavathiannan, Julier, Barre, Gulden, & Van Acker, 2010). World Bank High Income Countries, Significant reductions in pesticide use is reported by adoption of Bt maize in Canada, South Africa, and Spain, as well as Bt cotton, notably in China (Pemsl, Waibel, & Gutierrez, 2005), India (Qiam, 2003), Australia, and the United States (Mannion & Morse, 2013). Many critics of GM crops express concerns about allergenicity (Lehrer & Bannon, 2005). Some people believe it is not ethical to interfere with nature in this way. Type above and press Enter to search. 2. There are also some concerns that insects may develop resistance to the pesticides after ingesting GM pollen (Christou, Capell, Kohli, Gatehouse, & Gatehouse, 2006). The adoption of GM crops in a given jurisdiction is a function of public GM acceptance as well as the level of public trust of regulatory authorities (Vigani & Olper, 2013). Beach Country, This has sometime been referred to as genetic pollution (Reichman et al., 2006). Problems could result if, for example, herbicide-resistance genes got into weeds. Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. It can be used to create many sustainable foods for the world population. The most significant economic benefits attributed to GM crop cultivation have been higher gross margins due to lower costs of pest management for farmers (Klümper & Qaim, 2014; Qaim, 2010). The side effects are never known until it affects a mass which is the risk factor. GM crops will continue to be developed because they provide real operational benefits for farmers, who are the ones who purchase the seeds. I don’t think, however, that we address the profound questions until the more urgent and less important labeling issue is solved. It can severely affect the human food chain if the pathogen targets multiple species like bird influenza and a  virulent livestock disease of goats and sheep. Thus, canola producers welcomed the prospect of applying a single nonselective herbicide for all weed problems with little concern for specific weed spectrums, growth stages, tank mixture interactions (i.e., antagonism or crop injury) and/or extensive consultations.

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