what is indium used for

In fact, 50% of this metal is used in the production of liquid crystal displays. [42][43], Indium is the 68th most abundant element in Earth's crust at approximately 50 ppb. [58], In 1924, indium was found to have a valued property of stabilizing non-ferrous metals, and that became the first significant use for the element. [62] Indium tin oxide is used as a light filter in low-pressure sodium-vapor lamps. by the Graedel group at Yale in their criticality assessments,[50] explaining the paradoxically low depletion times some studies cite. [70], Indium's high neutron-capture cross-section for thermal neutrons makes it suitable for use in control rods for nuclear reactors, typically in an alloy of 80% silver, 15% indium, and 5% cadmium. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product? [24], Direct reaction of indium with the pnictogens produces the gray or semimetallic III–V semiconductors. Some Spectroscopic Studies", "The distribution of gallium, germanium and indium in conventional and non-conventional resources - Implications for global availability (PDF Download Available)", "Mineral Commodities Summary 2007: Indium", "Criticality of the Geological Zinc, Tin, and Lead Family", U.S. Geological Survey – Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States, "Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States", "Indium Price Supported by LCD Demand and New Uses for the Metal", "Image Detectors for Other Neutron Energies", "Factors Affecting the Toxicity of the Element Indium", "Macrophage Solubilization and Cytotoxicity of Indium-Containing Particles as in vitro Correlates to Pulmonary Toxicity in vivo", "Newly Recognized Occupational and Environmental Causes of Chronic Terminal Airways and Parenchymal Lung Disease", "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Indium", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indium&oldid=977175539, Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 September 2020, at 10:08. Indium has several industrial applications due to its physical and chemical properties. [15] Indium is rather basic in aqueous solution, showing only slight amphoteric characteristics, and unlike its lighter homologs aluminium and gallium, it is insoluble in aqueous alkaline solutions. In compounds, indium most commonly donates the three outermost electrons to become indium(III), In3+. Even at temperatures close to absolute zero, it can easily retain its softness, which makes it an obvious choice for many cryogenics and vacuum applications. Uncontrolled Blood Sugar: How Dangerous Is It? The effect of indium(III) salts on synthetic melanins and melanoma cells in culture. It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass. [79], People can be exposed to indium in the workplace by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, and eye contact. Many of them slowly decompose in moist air, necessitating careful storage of semiconductor compounds to prevent contact with the atmosphere. Because that blue line did not match any known element, they hypothesized a new element was present in the minerals. We hope you are enjoying ScienceStruck! It is used as a solder alloy due to its ability to fill the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of two different metals, which causes breakage between metal joints, due to contraction and expansion. Demand rose rapidly from the late 1990s to 2010 with the popularity of LCD computer monitors and television sets, which now account for 50% of indium consumption. These cookies do not store any personal information. This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department. Nonetheless, this element is still used in various ways and means in industries.…. This metal also finds extensive use in the coating of glasses. [67] Indium is an ingredient in the gallium–indium–tin alloy galinstan, which is liquid at room temperature and replaces mercury in some thermometers. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. Indium tin oxide is popularly used in low pressure sodium lamps. [72], In 2009, Professor Mas Subramanian and associates at Oregon State University discovered that indium can be combined with yttrium and manganese to form an intensely blue, non-toxic, inert, fade-resistant pigment, YInMn blue, the first new blue pigment discovered in 200 years. Therefore, its availability needs to be discussed in terms of supply potential. [12] Indium displays a ductile viscoplastic response, found to be size-independent in tension and compression. [18], Indium has 39 known isotopes, ranging in mass number from 97 to 135. [23] Indium forms the expected trihalides. [21], The stablest artificial isotope is indium-111, with a half-life of approximately 2.8 days. Only two isotopes occur naturally as primordial nuclides: indium-113, the only stable isotope, and indium-115, which has a half-life of 4.41×1014 years, four orders of magnitude greater than the age of the Universe and nearly 30,000 times greater than that of natural thorium. [41] The stable indium isotope, indium-113, is one of the p-nuclei, the origin of which is not fully understood; although indium-113 is known to be made directly in the s- and r-processes (rapid neutron capture), and also as the daughter of very long-lived cadmium-113, which has a half-life of about eight quadrillion years, this cannot account for all indium-113. An Overview of the Common Uses of the Element Mercury. [47] These figures are significantly greater than current production (655 t in 2016). In the middle and late 1980s, the development of indium phosphide semiconductors and indium tin oxide thin films for liquid-crystal displays (LCD) aroused much interest. It is used as a solder alloy due to its ability to fill the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of two different metals, which causes breakage between metal joints, due to contraction and expansion. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. China accounts for 60% of the world’s production of this metal, and the US relies on it and other countries, for its indium requirements. [16], A number of standard electrode potentials, depending on the reaction under study,[17] are reported for indium, reflecting the decreased stability of the +3 oxidation state:[11], Indium metal does not react with water, but it is oxidized by stronger oxidizing agents such as halogens to give indium(III) compounds. According to the UNEP, indium's end-of-life recycling rate is less than 1%. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. It was the first known organoindium(I) compound,[31] and is polymeric, consisting of zigzag chains of alternating indium atoms and cyclopentadienyl complexes. The fluoride is known only as an unstable gaseous compound. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. [80] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m3 over an eight-hour workday.

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